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    CentOS7安装GUI界面及远程连接的实现

    栏目:win服务器问题汇总 时间:2019-10-17 14:06

    用基于浏览器(webdriver)的selenium技术爬取数据,所以程序需运行在GUI环境下。本文分三个部分简要介绍安装GUI界面及远程连接的步骤。

    安装GUI界面

    大多数云服务器厂商提供的镜像都无GUI界面,所以要先安装图形环境。本文使用GNOME桌面环境:

    yum -y groups install "GNOME Desktop"

    这条命令将安装GNOME桌面的必要软件包,执行完后配置X系统使用GNOME:

    echo "exec gnome-session" >> ~/.xinitrc

    安装KDE或者MATE桌面环境的两个命令稍微不一样:

    # kde
    yum -y groups install "KDE Plasma Workspaces"
    echo "exec startkde" >> ~/.xinitrc
    
    # mate
    yum --enablerepo=epel -y groups install "MATE Desktop"
    ​echo "exec /usr/bin/mate-session" >> ~/.xinitrc
    
    

    以上便安装好了GUI桌面环境。

    启动桌面环境有两种方式:

    一次性的:在终端里输入startx; 系统启动时默认进入桌面环境: systemctl set-default graphical.target,然后重启;

    安装vnc-server

    有了桌面环境,一般可以通过云服务器厂商提供的web终端远程连接进入桌面。用web终端每次都需要打开浏览器,然后登陆云管理后台再连接,比较麻烦。我们采取直接从桌面客户端远程连接的方式,省去打开浏览器和登录云管理后台的操作。

    远程桌面技术有多种,例如VNC, TeamViewer, RDP等,本文使用免费且广泛使用的VNC。

    在服务器上先安装服务端(tigervnc是tightvnc的分支):

    yum install -y tigervnc-server

    接着复制一份VNC配置:

    cp /lib/systemd/system/vncserver@.service /etc/systemd/system/vncserver@:1.service

    注意上述命令参数重的“@:1”,可以将数字1换成30000内的任意数字,“5900+数字”即为程序的显示(监听)端口,如”@:1″表示监听5901端口。

    编辑该配置文件,将文件内的<USER>替换成远程连接时的登录用户名(如果是root,注意将第二个<USER>所在行的”/home”移除掉)。以root身份的配置示例:

    # The vncserver service unit file
    #
    # Quick HowTo:
    # 1. Copy this file to /etc/systemd/system/vncserver@.service
    # 2. Replace <USER> with the actual user name and edit vncserver
    #  parameters appropriately
    #  (ExecStart=/usr/sbin/runuser -l <USER> -c "/usr/bin/vncserver %i"
    #   PIDFile=/home/<USER>/.vnc/%H%i.pid)
    # 3. Run `systemctl daemon-reload`
    # 4. Run `systemctl enable vncserver@:<display>.service`
    #
    # DO NOT RUN THIS SERVICE if your local area network is
    # untrusted! For a secure way of using VNC, you should
    # limit connections to the local host and then tunnel from
    # the machine you want to view VNC on (host A) to the machine
    # whose VNC output you want to view (host B)
    #
    # [user@hostA ~]$ ssh -v -C -L 590N:localhost:590M hostB
    #
    # this will open a connection on port 590N of your hostA to hostB's port 590M
    # (in fact, it ssh-connects to hostB and then connects to localhost (on hostB).
    # See the ssh man page for details on port forwarding)
    #
    # You can then point a VNC client on hostA at vncdisplay N of localhost and with
    # the help of ssh, you end up seeing what hostB makes available on port 590M
    #
    # Use "-nolisten tcp" to prevent X connections to your VNC server via TCP.
    #
    # Use "-localhost" to prevent remote VNC clients connecting except when
    # doing so through a secure tunnel. See the "-via" option in the
    # `man vncviewer' manual page.
    
    
    [Unit]
    Description=Remote desktop service (VNC)
    After=syslog.target network.target
    
    [Service]
    Type=forking
    
    # Clean any existing files in /tmp/.X11-unix environment
    ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/vncserver -kill %i > /dev/null 2>&1 || :'
    ExecStart=/usr/sbin/runuser -l root -c "/usr/bin/vncserver %i"
    PIDFile=/root/.vnc/%H%i.pid
    ExecStop=/bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/vncserver -kill %i > /dev/null 2>&1 || :'
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target