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    使用Go进行单元测试的实现

    栏目:Linux/apache问题 时间:2019-11-08 01:08

    简介

    日常开发中, 测试是不能缺少的.

    Go 标准库中有一个叫做 testing 的测试框架, 可以用于单元测试和性能测试.

    它是和命令 go test 集成使用的.

    测试文件是以后缀 _test.go 命名的, 通常和被测试的文件放在同一个包中.

    单元测试

    单元测试的格式形如:

    func TestAbs(t *testing.T) {
     got := Abs(-1)
     if got != 1 {
      t.Errorf("Abs(-1) = %d; want 1", got)
     }
    }
    

    在 util 目录下创建一个文件 util_test.go, 添加一个单元测试:

    package util
    
    import "testing"
    
    // 普通的测试
    func TestGenShortID(t *testing.T) {
     shortID, err := GenShortID()
     if shortID == "" || err != nil {
     t.Error("GenShortID failed")
     }
    }
    
    

    然后, 在根目录下运行 go test -v ./util/, 测试结果如下:

    root@592402321ce7:/workspace# go test -v ./util/
    === RUN  TestGenShortID
    --- PASS: TestGenShortID (0.00s)
    PASS
    ok   tzh.com/web/util    0.006s
    

    性能测试

    性能测试的结果形如:

    func BenchmarkHello(b *testing.B) {
     for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
      fmt.Sprintf("hello")
     }
    }
    

    在 util_test.go 添加性能测试:

    // 性能测试
    func BenchmarkGenShortID(b *testing.B) {
     for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
     GenShortID()
     }
    }
    

    运行结果如下(使用 --run=none 避免运行普通的测试函数, 因为一般不可能有函数名匹配 none):

    root@592402321ce7:/workspace# go test -v -bench="BenchmarkGenShortID$" --run=none ./util/
    goos: linux
    goarch: amd64
    pkg: tzh.com/web/util
    BenchmarkGenShortID-2       507237       2352 ns/op
    PASS
    ok   tzh.com/web/util    1.229s
    

    这说明, 平均每次运行 GenShortID() 需要 2352 纳秒.

    性能分析

    运行测试的时候, 可以指定一些参数, 生成性能文件 profile.

    -blockprofile block.out
      Write a goroutine blocking profile to the specified file
      when all tests are complete.
      Writes test binary as -c would.
    
    -blockprofilerate n
      Control the detail provided in goroutine blocking profiles by
      calling runtime.SetBlockProfileRate with n.
      See 'go doc runtime.SetBlockProfileRate'.
      The profiler aims to sample, on average, one blocking event every
      n nanoseconds the program spends blocked. By default,
      if -test.blockprofile is set without this flag, all blocking events
      are recorded, equivalent to -test.blockprofilerate=1.
    
    -coverprofile cover.out
      Write a coverage profile to the file after all tests have passed.
      Sets -cover.
    
    -cpuprofile cpu.out
      Write a CPU profile to the specified file before exiting.
      Writes test binary as -c would.
    
    -memprofile mem.out
      Write an allocation profile to the file after all tests have passed.
      Writes test binary as -c would.
    
    -memprofilerate n
      Enable more precise (and expensive) memory allocation profiles by
      setting runtime.MemProfileRate. See 'go doc runtime.MemProfileRate'.
      To profile all memory allocations, use -test.memprofilerate=1.
    
    -mutexprofile mutex.out
      Write a mutex contention profile to the specified file
      when all tests are complete.
      Writes test binary as -c would.
    
    -mutexprofilefraction n
      Sample 1 in n stack traces of goroutines holding a
      contended mutex.